Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development <h1 class="Titulos" align="center">Welcome to the publishing site for the</h1> <h1 class="Titulos" align="center">Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development</h1> Professional Association for Cactus Development en-US Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 1938-663X Ants associated to prickly pear cactus crop in Texcoco, State of Mexico <p>In Mexico, center of domestication of prickly pear cactus species (also called “nopales”) few studies exist on insects associated with this crop. The studies are scantier on ants, since the majority are not considered to be pest. For this motive, the population dynamics of the ants was studied in experimental prickly pear crop in the installation of Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico. The sample was fortnightly performed from February 2013 to March 2014. Ants were gathered with pitfall traps and arboreal traps, all of them with three baits and others without bait. Also recorded raiding, the nests in crop and inside to the cladodes. We collected a total of 10,953 individuals (74 % on ground and 26% on prickly pear cladodes), and seven species were determined: <em>Hypoponera opacior</em> (Forel), <em>Neivamyrmex nigrescens</em> (Cresson), <em>Pogonomyrmex barbatus</em> (Smith), <em>Linepithema humile</em> (Mayr), <em>Camponotus atriceps</em> (Smith), <em>Pheidole obtusospinosa</em> Forel and <em>Monomorium minimum</em> (Buckley). The last four were more abundant and frequent. We discuss the presence and nesting of ants in crop and their association with other insects of prickly pear crop.</p> Jesús Acuña-Soto Fabian P. Grifaldo-Alcántara Ana Lilia Muñoz Viveros Juan Manuel Vanegas-Rico Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-01-24 2023-01-24 25 23 31 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.510 Pigmenting potential of betacyanins and betaxanthins separated from fruits of Stenocereus pruinosus with aqueous biphasic systems <p>The fruit of <em>Stenocereus pruinosus</em> is a source of betalains that can be used to provide tonalities ranging from red-violet to yellow, but the partitioning into betacyanins and betaxanthins must be addressed, in addition to the reduction of sugars. The objective was to evaluate the use of extracts of betalains from <em>Stenocereus pruinosus</em> fruits with different tones and low sugar content in the pigmentation of food matrices. Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) based on 1-propanol and sodium citrate were applied in multiple stages to obtain fractions rich in betaxanthins and betacyanins. Subsequently, an ABS based on polyethylene glycol 4000 and sodium citrate was used to reduce the sugar content. The extracts were used to pigment milk and to evaluate the color stability during a storage of 39 d at 4 °C. Four fractions, E<sub>yellow</sub>, E<sub>orange</sub>, E<sub>pink</sub>, and E<sub>red</sub>, were obtained with betacyanins concentration of 9.23, 22.37, 76.54, and 61.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> and betaxanthins concentration of 49.3, 77.5, 35.2, and 53.32 mg L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The hue angle of the pigmented milk with E<sub>yellow</sub>, E<sub>orange</sub>, E<sub>pink</sub>, and E<sub>red</sub> was 81.9, 60.6, 9.6, and 13.0°, respectively, at the beginning. The color remained without apparent change during 24 d, which allowed extracts of betacyanins and betaxanthins to be qualified as adequate to provide reddish and yellow hue in milk beverages. Although the multistage operation was required, four fractions with different tones were obtained from only one sample, which constitutes an innovative feature. In conclusion, it is feasible the use of betalains obtained with ABS from fruits of <em>S. pruinosus</em> as pigmenting agents of foods.</p> Leticia García-Cruz Diana Guerra-Ramírez Salvador Valle-Guadarrama Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 25 136 152 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.522 Morphological and phenological characterization of Moroccan Opuntia cactus varieties (Karama, Ghalia, Belara, Marjana, Cherratia, Angad, and Melk Zhar) resistant to the cactus cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) <p>In recent years, <em>Opuntia</em> cactus cultivation has been seriously threatened by the appearance of <em>Dactylopius opuntiae </em>(Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) in Morocco, and four species with eight cactus pear varieties have been identified by research as resistant to this cochineal, these varieties are already registered in the official catalog of species and varieties in Morocco. A morphological and phenological characterization using twenty morphological attributes of these eight varieties: Karama, Ghalia, Belara, Marjana, Cherratia, Angad, and Melk Zhar were performed. The principal component analysis allowed distinguishing five groups according to the studied characteristics. Aakria with the smallest bright red fruit and very small cladodes (15.8/7.7 cm), Belara with the highest number of cladodes per plant (101.2), large cladodes (36.4/25.8 cm) and very sweet large yellow-green fruit, Marjana with very thick cladodes (2.3 cm) and large and very sweet fruit. The group of varieties (Melk Zhar, Angad and Cherratia) is characterized by wide and thorny cladodes, the longest thorns and fruits of large size (202.5- 276.7 g). The group containing the varieties (Karama and Ghalia) is characterized by large cladodes (33.4-36.0/16.4-25.6 cm) and medium size fruits (98.5-115.6 g). Also, the periods of vegetative and floral budding, and flowering were the longest for Aakria and the shortest for Marjana. The period of fruit development was the longest for Aakria and the shortest for Marjana. In conclusion, these morphological and phenological variations among the eight cactus pear varieties identified as resistant to <em>D. opuntiae</em> in Morocco could be the subject of breeding programs.</p> El Aalaoui Mohamed Mohamed Sbaghi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 25 115 135 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.519 Agronomic and mineral characterization of cactus varieties under different doses of phosphorus <p>The forage cactus stands out in animal feed, as it adapts to the climatic conditions of the semi-arid region and has a high-water content with benefits for animals fed with this forage plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic and mineral characteristics of different forage cactus varieties managed under phosphate fertilization. A randomized blocks design was used, with split-plots in the space, the plots being the forage cactus varieties (Giant sweet clone (<em>Nopalea cochenillifera</em> (L.) Mill.), Little sweet clone (<em>Nopalea cochenillifera</em> (L.) Mill) and Mexicana (<em>Opuntia tuna</em> (L.) Mill)) and the subplots the doses of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup> year), with four repetitions. The evaluations and cuts were performed two years after planting. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. In the mean comparison between the forage cactus pear varieties, the Tukey’s test was used. Statistical analyzes were performed using the software SISVAR. The variety Mexicana presented higher values of perimeter, width, and green mass per plant. The variety Giant sweet clone obtained higher values of thickness and length. The highest number of cladodes and the shortest length, perimeter and width were observed on the variety Little sweet clone. Regarding the variety Little sweet clone, a quadratic response was observed for the mineral matter, calcium, zinc and manganese contents and linear response for phosphorus and iron contents, in relation to the increase of phosphorus doses. Mexicana and Giant sweet clone varieties presented quadratic response in the doses of phosphorus for calcium, iron, zinc, and manganese contents. Phosphate fertilization promotes important changes in the agronomic characteristics of the cactus pear varieties, especially in the increase of cladodes and yield. The minerals of the cactus pear are affected by the dosage of the phosphate fertilizer and by the genotypic difference of the plant.</p> Barbara Silveira Leandro de Lima Carlos Aldrovandi Torreão Marques Ricardo Loiola Edvan Leilson Rocha Bezerra Jucilene Silva Araújo Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega Marcos Jácome de Araújo Romilda Rodrigues do Nascimento Francisco Gleyson da Silveira Alves Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 25 94 108 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.455 Evaluation of yield and fatty acid composition of seed oils from cactus varieties resistant to Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) in Morocco <p>The Cactus Opuntia spp. plant is important to Morocco's arid and semi-arid regions. The edible and cosmetic oil from prickly pear fruit seeds is very prized. Since Dactylopius Opuntiae first appeared in Morocco in 2014, hundreds of hectares of cactus have been devastated, causing environmental and socio-economic costs. Eight D. Opuntiae resistant varieties were selected, multiplied and transplanted throughout Morocco, as part of the government's nationwide cactus rehabilitation program. This research evaluated the production and fatty acid composition of the seed oil of these varieties. Oil extraction was carried out with the Soxhlet method using hexane and by mechanical screw press. The crude seed oil content obtained by hexane extraction ranged from 9.54% to 16.44% (w/w). Mechanical screw extraction recovered half the seeds' oil. The fatty acid profiles showed that the oils were highly unsaturated; UFA fraction represented 76.31 to 82.63% of total FA and UFA/SFA ratio of 3.48 to 5.36. Linoleic acid was the dominant and represented 61.50% to 68.35% of total FA. These results highlight the importance of cochineal-resistant cactus varieties as oil sources and alternatives to those destroyed and still threatened by the harmful scale pest that appeared in more than 20 countries.</p> Youssef Chafai Mohamed El-aalaoui Mohamed Sbaghi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-06-19 2023-06-19 25 78 93 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.517 Integrated Postharvest of Pitahaya fruits (Hylocereus ocamponis) stored at different temperatures <p>Pitahaya (<em>Hylocereus</em> spp.) has been placed successfully in the global fruit market due to its exotic appearance and pleasant flavor; however, its short postharvest life has limited its marketing in national and international markets. The postharvest life and final quality of fruits depend on the state of maturity in which the fruit is harvested, as well on the storage conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the postharvest behavior of pitahaya fruits (<em>H. ocamponis</em>) harvested during two states of maturity (pre-consumer and consumption maturity), stored at 6 ± 1°C and 22 ± 3 °C for 24 days. The color, firmness, epicarp thickness, weight loss, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, betalains, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity showed significant changes during the storage period. The preserved fruits at room temperature maintained their firmness and color of the epicarp, content of soluble solids, soluble sugars and betalains during 9 days of storage, but from the 16th day, they showed rottenness and degradation of epicarp betalains. In contrast, the stored fruits in refrigeration presented a lower weight loss, greater firmness, and epicarp thickness, reaching 24 days of shelf life. The antioxidant activity was greater in the pulp of the stored fruits at 22 °C, due to an apparent higher betalains concentration associated with greater water loss in the fruit.</p> Lyzbeth Hernández-Ramos María del Rosario García Mateos Ana María Castillo-González Ma Carmen Ybarra-Moncada Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 25 59 77 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.521 Physiological and morphometric characteristics of Pachycereus pringlei (S.Watson) Britton & Rose seedlings applying organic manures <p>The establishment of <em>Pachycereus pringlei</em> seedlings is a scarce event; soil conditions are one of the factors attributed to its high mortality rate in the early stages of development. The use of organic manures as a substrate helps to improve the structure, porosity, and density of the soil where they live, in addition to providing nutrients that would benefit the roots, increasing the possibility of their establishment during the emergence stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different proportions of organic manures as a sown substrate in the emergence and establishment of <em>Pachycereus pringlei</em> seedlings, using nine treatments of organic manures in a completely randomized experimental design with four replications. The variables measured were emergence rate (ER) and percentage (EP) and their indices, seedlings’ morphometric, and physiological characteristics in the establishment stage. The results showed that the evaluated variables in the emergence and seedling establishment phase indicate the preference for natural substrate and organic manure combinations in proportions of 50 and 30%, respectively. The analysis of variance showed significant differences regarding the morphometric and physiological variables of the stem and root of the evaluated treatments. The emergence and establishment analyses show that cardon seedlings under different organic manure treatments and controlled conditions had excellent survival results compared to the low rates of recruitment and survival reported under natural conditions. Similarly, the implementation of organic manures improved the physiological and morphometric characteristics of the cardon seedlings compared to the control treatment with the natural substrate.</p> Joselyn Vanessa Seminario Peña Alejandra Nieto-Garibay Enrique Troyo-Diéguez Bernardo Murillo-Amador Alfonso Medel-Narváez Teresa Terrazas Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 25 36 58 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.516 Advances on polysaccharides from cactus: analysis and review based on bibliometrics <p>Plant polysaccharides are rich in physiological activities, which are beneficial for developing new drugs, nutraceuticals and functional foods. Cactus is of interest to researchers in agronomy, medicine and food chemistry because of its long history of medicinal use, its simple growing requirements and biological basis for becoming a green vegetable. This review provides the first summary and analysis of the research history of cactus polysaccharides through a bibliometric approach. Bibliometrics was used to investigate the focus of different stages of development of the topic, with contributions from different countries and institutions. In addition, keyword analysis and keyword clustering were used to understand the different research directions of this topic. The analysis showed that (1) the study of cactus plant polysaccharides is a long-established topic but did not attract much attention in its early stages. (2) In 2018, research on cactus polysaccharides has received more attention than ever before. (3) Mexican institutions and scholars have contributed the most important contributions to this topic. (4) This theme has only formed one complex network of cooperation, mainly composed of Mexican institutions and scholars. (5) Early studies on cactus polysaccharides focused on the detection, extraction and purification of polysaccharide content. (6) The biological activities of plant polysaccharides have gradually become the focus of research in recent years. (7) The biological activity of plant polysaccharides has been verified from in vitro experiments and in vivo experiments with positive results.</p> Yuhong Zheng Pengcong Zhang LI FU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 25 1 22 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.513 Cactus City, Kasugai <p>I am a herpetologist specializing on exotic animals and exotic plants psychology and behavior. I was travelling around Japan and through my travels I was lucky to spot an interesting history and use of a specific type of cactus. The city called Cactus City in Japan were the community celebrating and promoting the health benefits and to eat cactus and, they managed to pass a bill to introduce cactus as a food in schools. This unusual devotion towards to xerophytes, coming from a natural disaster which has put part of Japan in a position where they had to explore the unknown. I found not only an interesting story but a unique approach to life through nature and community.</p> David I. Bacsek Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 25 109 114 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.531 Unearthing the Multifaceted Potential of Opuntia spp.: A Comprehensive Exploration <p>Unearthing the Multifaceted Potential of <em>Opuntia spp.</em>: A Comprehensive Exploration.&nbsp;Book review of <em>Opuntia spp.</em>: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Industrial Applications, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Tamer E. Moussa Ayoub, Sascha Rohn (Ed.), 1059 pages, 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 978-3-030-78443-0</p> Jiezhang Xu LI FU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development 2023-05-01 2023-05-01 25 32 35 10.56890/jpacd.v25i.524